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Grammar and Usage Handbook

Word Usage and Word Relationships>

Agreement of Subject and Verb

It may seem needless to say that a singular subject takes a singular verb, while a plural subject takes a plural verb; however, when phrases or other elements come between the subject and the verb, the agreement may not be clear.

The small table around which the children play was in the hall.

The small tables owned by the church were in the hall.

The men, as well as the policeman, were aghast at the sight.

The following words are generally considered singular and take singular verbs: each, either, neither, one, someone, anyone, everybody, nobody, somebody, much, anybody, everyone.

The following words are plural and take plural verbs: both, few, many, several.

The following pronouns may be singular or plural depending on the meaning intended: all, most, some, every, none, any, half, more.

When one is referring to two or more persons who are of different sexes, or to a group of people whose gender one has no way of determining, the pronouns they, them, and their are often used to refer to anyone, each, everybody, etc., in order to avoid the awkward he or she, him or her, his or her.

Either—Or; Neither—Nor

Neither always takes nor; either takes or.

When a subject is compounded with neither … nor or eitheror, the verb is normally singular if the nouns joined are singular, and plural if they are plural. If, however, one noun is singular and one plural, the verb agrees with the second or nearer subject.

Either Bill or Ralph is lying.

Neither she nor her sisters skate well.

Collective Nouns

A collective noun, such as class, company, club, crew, jury, committee, takes a singular verb when the whole is considered as a unit, and a plural verb when members of the whole are being considered separately.

The jury has deliberated for six hours.

The crew were near exhaustion after their many hours of exposure.

Some collective nouns, as police and cattle, are used only in the plural form; others, as mankind and wildlife, are generally used in the singular form.

The cattle were almost destroyed by the severe storm.

The New England wildlife has been protected.

Agreement of Pronoun with Its Antecedent

If the antecedent is singular, the pronoun is singular, if the antecedent is plural, the pronoun is likewise plural.

The boy did his best in the contest.

The boys in the school did their best.

The boy and the girl did their best.

Neither one of the boys did his best.

Capitalization

Conventions governing the use of capital letters are quite clear.

Capitalize the first word of every sentence.

The first person singular pronoun I and the vocative O are generally capitalized.

Unless style requires a different form, a.m. and p.m. are set in small letters without a space between them. Capital letters are used for B.C. and A.D. but, again, there is no space between them.

9:30 a.m.10:30 p.m.
A.D. 1760 or 1760 A.D.
76 B.C.

Note: Although A.D. should technically precede the number of the year, popular usage permits it to follow the date. In printed matter B.C., A.D., a.m., and p.m. usually appear in small capitals (B.C., A.D., A.M., P.M.).

The first letter of a line of conventional poetry is capitalized. Much modern poetry, however, ignores this convention.

Hickory, dickory, dock

The mouse ran up the clock.

The first word after a colon should be capitalized only when it begins a complete sentence.

The candidate made only one promise: If elected, he would fight for better conditions.

The list contained these items: five pounds of flour, two dozen eggs, and a pound of butter.

Every direct quotation should begin with a capital, except where the quoted passage is grammatically woven into the text preceding it.

The announcer shouted, “There it goes, over the back wall for a home run!”

The announcer shouted that the ball was going “over the back wall for a home run.”

Capitalize the first letters of all important words in the titles of books, newspapers, magazines, chapters, poems, articles. Short conjunctions and prepositions are generally not capitalized.

How to Win Friends and Influence People

Geographical divisions and regions require capitals.

Arctic Circlethe Atlantic Seaboard
the Orientthe Great Plains

Compass points are capitalized when they are part of a generally accepted name, but not when they denote direction or locality.

Middle Easteastern New York
Old SouthHead west for twenty-five miles.

Capitalize names of streets, parks, buildings, but not the general categories into which they fall.

Fifth Avenue

Which avenue is widest?

General Post Office

We went to the post office.

Religions, religious leaders, the various appellations for God and the Christian Trinity require capitalization, as do all names for the Bible and its parts.

the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost

Virgin Mary, the Immaculate Virgin

Yahweh, Jehovah, Saviour, Messiah

Buddhism, Shintoism, Taoism

New Testament

Exodus

Sermon on the Mount

Ten Commandments

Capitalize the names of political parties, classes, clubs, organizations, movements, and their adherents. Use small letters for the terms that refer generally to ideology (bolshevism, fascism, socialism).

Democratic Party

the Right Wing

Farm bloc

Boy Scouts of America

Political Divisions are capitalized.

Holy Roman Empirethe Colonies
French RepublicSuffolk County
the DominionEighth Election District

Government bodies, departments, bureaus, and courts are capitalized.

the Supreme Courtthe Cabinet
House of RepresentativesCensus Bureau
Department of LaborBritish Parliament

Capitalize the titles of all high-ranking government officials, and all appellations of the President of the United States. Many publishers, it should be pointed out, prefer small letters for titles that are not accompanied by the name of the official.

PresidentCommander-in-Chief
Secretary of StateChief Justice
UndersecretaryPrime Minister
Ambassador to IndiaMinister of War

Capitalize the names of treaties, documents, and important events.

Second World WarDeclaration of Independence
Treaty of VersaillesBoston Tea Party

Family designations, when used without a possessive pronoun, take a capital letter.

I sent Mother home by taxi.

I sent my mother home by taxi.

Capitalize seasons only when they are personified. All personifications require capitals.

The frosty breath of Winter settled on the land.

The voice of Envy whispered in her ear.

Necessity is the mother of Invention.

When Headquarters commands, we jump.

He saw Mother Nature's grim visage.

Names and epithets of peoples, races, and tribes are capitalized.

CaucasianSioux
NegroCliff Dwellers

Articles and prepositions are generally capitalized in the names of Englishmen and Americans, and are not capitalized in French, Italian, Spanish, German, and Dutch names, unless otherwise specified by family usage.

Thomas De QuinceyLudwig van Beethoven
Martin Van BurenLeonardo da Vinci
Fiorello La GuardiaSan Juan de la Cruz

Capitalize the names of holidays and festivals.

ChristmasShrove Tuesday
Yom KippurNew Year's Day

Capitalize such parts of a book as Glossary, Contents, Index, and Preface.

Capitalize the first and last words in the salutation in business letters, and all titles.

My dear SirDear Doctor Brown
My dear Reverend LothropDear Reverend Father

Capitalize only the first word of the complimentary close of a letter.

Very truly yoursSincerely yours

Spelling

General Suggestions

When in doubt as to the correct spelling of a word, consult the dictionary; do not take anything for granted.

Keep a list of your spelling errors and study them.

Learn the most commonly misspelled words in the lists below.

Learn to spell by syllables, carefully pronouncing each syllable. Faulty spelling is often due to faulty pronunciation.

Use newly acquired words and make them part of your oral and written vocabulary.

Do not use the simplified or modern forms of spelling in business correspondence, as thru for through.

Learn some basic spelling rules such as the following.

cede, ceed, and sede endings According to the Government Style Manual, there is only one word which ends in sedesupersede, and three that end in ceedproceed, exceed, succeed. All other words having this sound end in cedeprecede, secede, recede, etc.

ie and ei a. After c, when the sound is long e (ē), the e usually precedes the i: receive, deceive, ceiling, receipt.

b. After most other letters, the i precedes the e: thief, grief, believe, achieve, lien.

c. When the sound is not long e (ē); and especially if the sound is long a (ā), the e precedes the i: sleigh, veil.

The exceptions must be learned, since they follow no rule: neither, leisure, weird, seize.

Beginnings and Endings of Words (Prefixes and Suffixes)

a. As a general rule, drop the final e in the base word when a suffix beginning with a vowel is added.

decide—deciding; write—writing; type—typist

b. As a rule, retain the final e in the base word when a suffix beginning with a consonant is added.

remote—remotely; care—carefully; infringe—infringement

c. In applying the rule for adding ed or ing, the accent (or lack of it) may serve as a guide. Words of one syllable (and most words of more than one syllable) that end in a single consonant (except ƒ, h, or x), preceded by a single vowel, double the final consonant if the accent falls on the last syllable.

plan—planned, planning; whet—whetted, whetting transfer—transferred, transferring; control—controlled, controlling

When the word is not accented on the last syllable, the consonant is usually not doubled.

travel—traveled, traveler; profit—profited, profiteer

d. When the endings ness and ly are added to a word not ending in y, the base word rarely changes. In most words ending in y, the y changes to i when ly is added.

natural—naturally; similar—similarly; genuine—genuineness; blessed—blessedness; hazy—hazily; body—bodily

If the base word ends in n and the suffix ness is added, the n is doubled.

sudden—suddenness; mean—meanness; vain—vainness

e. In regard to the word endings ise, ize, yze, the most common form is ize, but here the dictionary should be consulted if there is doubt.

legalize, fraternize, criticize, jeopardize advertise, merchandise, surmise, enterprise paralyze, analyze

In British English ise is sometimes used for ize, as realise for realize.

f. When adding the suffix ful, the l is single except when ly is also added (fully).

care—careful—carefully; hope—hopeful—hopefully

g. When the word beginnings (prefixes) in, en, im, em, un, dis, mis, be, de, re, il, and over are added to a word, the spelling of the word is not changed.

inactive, enjoy, impending, embrace, uneasy, dismiss, mistrust, beguile, degrade, retreat, illegal, overhaul

Forming the Plurals of Nouns

a. Most nouns form the plural by simply adding s.

table—tables; house—houses

b. Some nouns, especially those ending in s, form the plural by adding es.

class—classes; fox—foxes

c. Words ending in y preceded by a consonant form the plural by changing the y to i and adding es.

candy—candies; study—studies; secretary—secretaries

d. Words ending in y preceded by a vowel form the plural by adding s but without any other change in the word.

key—keys; boy—boys

e. Nouns ending in o preceded by a vowel form the plural by adding s.

rodeo—rodeos; radio—radios

When the o is preceded by a consonant, the plural is formed by adding es.

hero—heroes; torpedo—torpedoes

f. Nouns referring to music which end in o preceded by a consonant form the plural by simply adding s.

piano—pianos; oratorio—oratorios; contralto—contraltos; soprano—sopranos

g. Some few nouns follow none of the above rules but form the plural in an unusual way.

child—children; tooth—teeth; mouse—mice; ox—oxen

h. Compound nouns (more than one word) form the plural from the main word.

trade union—trade unions; father-in-law—fathers-in-law

i. When a solid compound ends in ful, the plural is formed at the end of the solid compound and not within the word.

basketful—basketfuls; pocketful—pocketfuls

j. When the words in compounds are of almost equal importance, both parts of the compound are pluralized.

head of department—heads of departments; woman operator—women operators

k. Words taken from another language sometimes form the plural as they would in the original language.

stratum—strata; addendum—addenda; datum—data

Summary of Spelling Rules
ProblemRuleExamplesExceptions
From Business Letter Writing Made Simple, revised ed., by Irving Rosenthal and Harry W. Rudman, Copyright © 1955, 1968 by Doubleday & Co., Inc.
lE and ElI before E, except after C.achieve, but ceiling1. Use El when:
 a. Sounded as ā: neighbor, weigh
 b. Sounded as ĭ: counterfeit
 c. Sounded as ī: height
2. Use IE for almost all other sounds: friend, lieutenant.
 3. If i and e do not form a digraph, rules do not apply: fiery, deity.
Final Silent E1. Drop before suffix beginning with a vowel.grieve—grievance1. Retain e after soft c and soft g before suffixes beginning with a or o: peacable, manageable.
2. Retain before suffix beginning with a consonant.absolute—absolutely
Final Y1. Change final y to i if y is preceded by a consonant and followed by any suffix except one beginning with i.beauty—beautiful BUT
carry—carrying
dry—dryness; sly—slyness.
2. Retain final y if it is preceded by a vowel.boy—boys; valley—valleysday—daily; pay—paid
Final ConsonantsDouble final consonants when:Final consonant is not doubled if:
1. Preceded by a single vowel1. drop—dropped; beg—beggar1. Accent shifts to preceding syllable when suffix is added: confer′—confer′ring BUT con′ference.
2. Followed by a suffix beginning with a vowel.2. quit—quitting; swim—swimmer2. Final consonant is preceded by a consonant: start—started.
3. The consonant terminates a monosyllabic word.3. hit—hitter; run—running3. Final consonant is preceded by two vowels: beat—beating; boil—boiling.
4. The consonant terminates a polysyllabic word accented on the last syllable.4. omit—omitted; transfer—transferred
k added to words ending in cAdd k to words ending in c before a suffix beginning with e, i, y.frolic—frolicking—frolicked; picnic—picnicking—picnicked
-cede -ceed -sedeExcept for supersede, exceed, proceed, succeed, all words having this sound end in -cede.accede, precede, recede, concede
Plurals1. Regular noun plurals add -s to the singular.boy—boys; book—books
2. Irregular plurals:
a. Add -es if noun ends in o preceded by consonant.a. echo—echoes; Negro— Negroesa. piano—pianos; zero—zeros; solo—solos.
b. Change y to i and add -es if noun ends in y preceded by consonant.b. sky—skies; enemy—enemies
c. Add -s if noun ends in y preceded by vowel.c. play—plays; day— days
Possessives1. Don't confuse contractions with possessive pronouns.Contraction Possessive 1. it's (it is) its they're their (they are)
2. Use no apostrophes with possessive or relative pronouns.2. his, hers, ours, yours, theirs, whose
3. If singular or plural noun does not end in s, add apostrophe and s.3. child's (Sing.), children's (Plur.)
4. If singular or plural noun does end in s, add apostrophe4. hostess' (Sing.), hostesses' (Plur.), princes' (Plur.)

Spelling Lists

List of Words Most Frequently Misspelled by High School Seniors

The list of words below* contains 149 words most frequently misspelled by high school seniors. These words and word-groups (those which are variants of the same word, as acquaint and acquaintance), were compiled by Dean Thomas Clark Pollock of New York University from 14,651 examples of misspelling submitted by 297 teachers in the United States, Canada and Hawaii. Each of the words represented was misspelled twenty times or more, and yet these words, comprising fewer than three per cent of the original list of 3,811 words, account for thirty per cent of the total misspellings.

NOTE: The trouble spots in each word are italicized. Numbers beside the words indicate how frequently each word is misspelled.

their179all right91imageits
it's
52
22
receive163separate91imageoccur
occurred
occurrence
occurring
9
52
10
2
too152until88imagestudy
studied

studies
studying
1
3
3
34
imagewriter
writing
written
11
81
13
privilege82definite78
imagedescribe
description
28
38
tragedy64believe77
there78probably33speech33
imagedecide
decision
48
15
argument32imageconvenience
convenient
5
33
imageimage
imagine
imaginary
imagination
3
7
5
17
imagedifference
different
15
23
imagesucceed
success
successful
25
22
12
occasion54occasionally8quiet32
than38then32athletic37
to37prejudice30business36
sense30interest56similar30
imageequipped
equipment
21
14
imageyour
you're
2
28
imageimmediate
immediately
3
51
beginning55embarrass48appearance29
imageprincipal
principle
18
18
coming53conscious29
imageprophecy
prophesy
35
35
imagebenefit
beneficial
benefited
benefiting
16
5
11
1
imagestop
stopped
stopping
1
24
4
grammar47pleasant29imagehumor
humorous
2
45
imageexist
existence
3
43
imageexcite
excited
excitement
exciting
1
7
13
7
imagelose
losing
28
15
develop34environment34surprise29
recommend34fascinate33finally33
disappoint42rhythm41experience28
imagenecessary
necessity
24
9
government27imageacquaint
acquaintance
17
9
laboratory27imageforeign
foreigners
14
9
tried27
affect26familiar21accept25
performance23escape21
accommodate25together23meant21
excellent25descend13where21
opportunity25descendant9chief20
imagemarry
marries
marriage
4
6
15
during22hero10
woman22forty22heroes9
lonely20certain21heroine1
character24imagecommit
committed
4
12
opinion20
friend24complete24parliament20
committing5possess20villain20
truly24criticism21professor20
accidentally23disappear21restaurant20
doesn't23exaggerate21

* The list compiled by Dr. Pollock appears in the Teachers' Service Bulletin in English (Macmillan, November, 1952).

List of 100 Words Most Frequently Misspelled by College Freshmen

absenceeffecto'clock
accidentallyeighthomitted
acrossembarrassedparallel
aggravateenvironmentperhaps
all rightexerciseprincipal
amateurFebruaryprinciples
argumentforthprivilege
aroundfortyproceed
athleticfourthpronunciation
believedfriendquiet
benefitedgovernmentquite
businessgrammarreceived
busygrievancerecommend
capitalhadn'treferred
cemeteryheightrelieve
chooseindispensablerhythm
choseninterestedschedule
comingitsseize
committeeit'sseparate
competitionknowledgeshining
conscientiouslaboratorystationery
consciouslatterstrength
coollyliteraturesucceed
councilloosesuperintendent
counsellosesupersede
criticismlosingtragedy
deceivemaintenancetries
definitemarriagetruly
desertmischievousvillain
dessertnoticeableWednesday
diningoccasionweird
disappointedoccurredwhether
doesn'toccurrencewoman
don't

List of Words Frequently Misspelled on Civil Service Examinations

accidentmunicipalsociety
all rightprincipalsimplified
auxiliaryprincipletechnicality
athleticpromotionaltendency
buoyantpresidenttheir
catalogueprecedethousandth
careerproceedtransferred
comptrollerpromissorytransient
criticiserecommendtruly
dividendpersonnelvillain
embarrasspurchasableWednesday
expedientresponsibilitywrit
governmentreceivedwhether
inveigleregrettableyield
monetarysupersede

Confusing Words

accept See EXCEPT.

addition, edition Addition means the process of joining together or finding the sum of. Edition refers to the form in which a book, magazine, or other literary work is published: first edition.

advice, advise Advice is the noun: to give advice. Advise is the verb: to advise a person.

affect See EFFECT.

all ready See ALREADY.

all right, alright All right is the only spelling to be used: It is all right to do so. The spelling alright is not yet considered acceptable and should not be used.

allude, elude Allude means to make indirect or casual reference: He alluded to one of Shakespeare's sonnets. Elude means to avoid or escape: The meaning eludes me.

already, all ready Already means before or by this time or the time mentioned: The group has already gone. All ready (two words) means that everyone is ready to do a given thing. We are all ready to go.

among, between. Among is used when referring to more than two persons or things. Between is usually preferable when referring to only two persons or things.

appraise, apprise Appraise means to make an official valuation of. Apprise means to notify or inform.

ascent, assent Ascent means rising, soaring, or climbing: the ascent of the mountain. Assent means agreement, consent, sanction: assent to a course of action.

between See AMONG.

can See MAY.

capital, capitol Capital means a city that is important in some special way: Albany is the capital of New York. Capitol means a building in which a State legislature meets: The capitol is on Chamber Street.

censor, censure Censor means (n.) an official examiner of manuscripts, plays, etc.; (v.) to act as a censor; delete; suppress. Censure means (v.) to express disapproval of; (n.) the expression of disapproval or blame.

census See SENSES.

cite, sight, site Cite means to mention or bring forward: to cite an incident. Sight (n.) means a view, a vision: a beautiful sight. Site means a place or location: the site of the church.

compliment, complement Compliment (n.) means praise or congratulation. Complement (n.) means one of two parts that mutually complete each other.

consul See COUNCIL.

council, counsel, consul Council (n.) means an assembly convened for consultation. Counsel (n.) means guidance, advice; also, a lawyer. Consul (n.) means an officer residing in a foreign country to protect his own country's interests.

creditable, credible Creditable means deserving credit or esteem; praiseworthy: a creditable project for reducing poverty. Credible means capable of being believed; reliable: a credible alibi.

decent, descent, dissent Decent means proper; respectable. Descent means the act of descending or going downward. Dissent means (v.) to disagree; (n.) a disagreement.

devise, device Devise (v.) means to invent, contrive, or plan. Device (n.) is something devised; invention; contrivance.

dissent See DECENT.

edition See ADDITION.

effect, affect Effect, common as both a noun and a verb, means (v.) to bring about; to cause or achieve: The treatments will effect an early cure; and (n.) result, outcome. Affect, in common use a verb only, means to influence or act upon: Fear affects the mind.

effective, effectual Effective means producing a desired result: Effective action averted the strike. Effectual means having the power to produce a desired result: effectual legal steps.

elicit, illicit Elicit means to bring to light: to elicit the truth. Illicit means unlawful or unauthorized.

elude See ALLUDE.

eminent, imminent Eminent means high in station; distinguished; prominent: an eminent statesman. Imminent means about to happen (said especially of danger): an imminent calamity.

except, accept Except (v.) means to take or leave out: to except no one from the restrictions. Accept means to receive or agree to; acknowledge: to accept an invitation.

formerly, formally Formerly means some time ago; once: He was formerly a judge. Formally means with formality or with regard to form: formally dressed.

illicit See ELICIT.

imminent See EMINENT.

lay, lie See not under LAY1 in the body of this dictionary.

learn See TEACH.

lesson, lessen Lesson refers to instructive or corrective example. Lessen means to make less; decrease.

loose, lose Loose means not fastened or attached. Lose means to mislay or be deprived of.

may, can May expresses permission: The child may play in the yard. Can expresses ability to do: The child can do better than he is doing at present.

past, passed Past means (adj.) ended or finished: His hopes are past; and (n.) time gone by: He dreams of the past. Passed, the past tense and past particle of pass, means went (or gone) beyond or farther than: The car, which was going at high speed, passed him easily.

persecute, prosecute Persecute means to maltreat or oppress; to harass. Prosecute, generally used in a legal sense, means to bring suit against.

personal, personnel Personal pertains to a person: personal matters, personal opinions. Personnel pertains to a body or group of persons: personnel problem, personnel department.

practical, practicable Practical pertains to actual use and experience. Practicable means feasible or usable.

prosecute See PERSECUTE.

senses, census Senses, the plural of sense, refers to awareness and rationality or to the faculty of sensation: to come to one's senses; Her senses were dulled by the accident. Census refers to an official count of the people of a country or district, etc.

shall, will See note under SHALL in the body of this dictionary.

sight See CITE.

site See CITE.

stationery, stationary Stationery refers to writing supplies. Stationary means remaining in one place.

sweet, suite Sweet means having a taste like sugar. Suite refers to a set or series of things intended to be used together: suite of rooms, suite of furniture.

teach, learn Teach means to impart knowledge; learn means to acquire knowledge. The teacher teaches; the student learns.

will, shall See note under SHALL in the body of this dictionary.

Sample Business Letters

Letterhead

image
This model letter includes in standard form all the elements normally employed in the business letter.

From Business Letter Writing Made Simple, revised ed., by Irving Rosenthal and Harry W. Rudman, Copyright © 1955, 1968 by Doubleday & Co., Inc.

The “Modified Block” Form

image
All the letter's contents, with the exception of the date, the complimentary close, the signature, are aligned on the left hand margin. This is still the most widely employed form.

Full Indention

image
This form is all but obsolete, and there seems little doubt that in time it will cease entirely to be used.

Additional Sheets

image
It was necessary, because of its length, to continue this letter on an additional sheet. The additional sheet is headed by the addressee's name, the page number, and the date. There is the requisite minimum of three lines of text, in addition to complimentary close and signature.

The “Full Block” Form

image
In the “full block” form all the letter's contents are aligned on the left hand margin.

Forms of Address

President of the United States

Address: Business: The President

The White House

Washington, D.C.

Social: The President and Mrs. Roberts

The White House

Washington, D.C.

Salutation: Formal: Mr. President:

Informal: Dear Mr. President:

Closing: Formal: Most respectfully yours,

Informal: Sincerely yours,

In Conversation: Mr. President or Sir

Title of Introduction: The President or Mr. Roberts

Vice President of the United States

Address: Business: The Vice President

United States Senate

Washington, D.C.

Social: The Vice President and Mrs. Hope

Home Address

Salutation: Formal: Mr. Vice President:

Informal: Dear Mr. Vice President:

Closing: Formal: Very truly yours,

Informal: Sincerely yours,

In Conversation: Mr. Vice President or Sir

Title of Introduction: The Vice President or Mr. Hope

Chief Justice of the United States

Address: Business: The Chief Justice

The Supreme Court

Washington, D.C.

Social: The Chief Justice and Mrs. Page

Home Address

Salutation: Formal: Sir:

Informal: Dear Mr. Chief Justice:

Closing: Formal: Very truly yours,

Informal: Sincerely yours,

In Conversation: Mr. Chief Justice or Sir

Title of Introduction: The Chief Justice

Associate Justice of the Supreme Court

Address: Business: Mr. Justice Katsaros

The Supreme Court

Washington, D.C.

Social: Mr. Justice Katsaros and Mrs. Katsaros

Home Address

Salutation: Formal: Sir:

Informal: Dear Mr. Justice Katsaros:

Closing: Formal: Very truly yours,

Informal: Sincerely yours,

In Conversation: Mr. Justice or Mr. Justice Katsaros or Sir

Title of Introduction: Mr. Justice Katsaros

Cabinet Officer

Address: Business: The Honorable Gary George Gussin

Secretary of the Treasury or

Attorney General of the United States

Washington, D.C.

Social: The Secretary of the Treasury and Mrs. Gussin

Home Address

or (for a woman cabinet member)

The Honorable Beatrice Schwartz or (if she is married)

Mr. and Mrs. Henry Leo Woods

Salutation: Formal: Sir: or Dear Sir: or Madam:

Informal: Dear Mr. Secretary: or Dear Madam Secretary:

Closing: Formal: Very truly yours,

Informal: Sincerely yours,

In Conversation: Mr. Secretary or Madam Secretary or Mr. Attorney General or Mr. (or Miss or Mrs.) Smith

Title of Introduction: The Secretary of the Treasury, Mr. Smith or

The Attorney General of the United States, Mr. Smith

Former President

Address: Business: The Honorable Alfred Edward Work

Office Address

Social: The Honorable and Mrs. Alfred Edward Work

Home Address

Salutation: Formal: Sir:

Informal: Dear Mr. Work:

Closing: Formal: Very truly yours,

Informal: Sincerely yours,

In Conversation: Mr. Work or Sir

Title of Introduction: The Honorable Alfred Edward Work

United States Senator

Address: Business: The Honorable John Wandzilak

United States Senate

Washington, D.C.

Social: The Honorable and Mrs. John Wandzilak

Home Address

or (for a woman senator)

The Honorable Marguerite Sanders

or (if she is married)

Mr. and Mrs. John Row Doe

Salutation: Formal: Sir: or Madam:

Informal: Dear Senator Wandzilak:

Closing: Formal: Very truly yours,

Informal: Sincerely yours,

In Conversation: Senator or Senator Wandzilak or Sir

Title of Introduction: Senator Wandzilak

Speaker of the House of Representatives

Address: Business: The Honorable Walter Fry

The Speaker of the House of Representatives

Washington, D.C.

Social: The Speaker of the House of Representatives and Mrs. Fry

Home Address

Salutation: Formal: Sir:

Informal: Dear Mr. Speaker:

Closing: Formal: Very truly yours,

Informal: Sincerely yours,

In Conversation: Mr. Speaker or Sir

Title of Introduction: The Speaker of the House of Representatives or The Speaker, Mr. Fry

Member of the House of Representatives

Address: Business: The Honorable Henry Cobb Wellcome

United States House of Representatives

Washington, D.C.

Social: The Honorable and Mrs. Henry Cobb Wellcome

Home Address

or (for a woman member)

The Honorable Ann Davenport

or (if she is married)

Mr. and Mrs. John Knox Jones

Salutation: Formal: Sir: or Madam:

Informal: Dear Mr. Wellcome:

Closing: Formal: Very truly yours,

Informal: Sincerely yours,

In Conversation: Mr. Wellcome or Miss Davenport or

Mrs. Jones or Sir or Madam

Title of Introduction: Representative Wellcome

Ambassador of the United States

Address: Business: The Honorable John Wilson Smith

The Ambassador of the United States

American Embassy

London, England

Social: The Honorable and Mrs. John Wilson Smith

Home Address

or (for a woman ambassador)

The Honorable Janet Lund

or (if she is married)

Mr. and Mrs. Joseph Leeds Walker

Salutation: Formal: Sir: or Madam:

Informal: Dear Mr. Ambassador: or Dear Madam Ambassador:

Closing: Formal: Very truly yours,

Informal: Sincerely yours,

In Conversation: Mr. Ambassador or Madam Ambassador or Sir or Madam

Title of Introduction: The American Ambassador or

The Ambassador of the

United States

Minister Plenipotentiary of the United States

Address: Business: The Honorable James Lee Row

The Minister of the United States

American Legation

Oslo, Norway

Social: The Honorable and Mrs. James Lee Row

Home Address

or (for a woman minister)

The Honorable Eugenia Carlucci

or (if she is married)

Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Johnson

Salutation: Formal: Sir: or Madam:

Informal: Dear Mr. Minister or Dear Madam Minister:

Closing: Formal: Very truly yours,

Informal: Sincerely yours,

In Conversation: Mr. Row or Miss Carlucci or Mrs. Johnson

Title of Introduction: Mr. Row, the American Minister

Consul of the United States

Address: Business: Mr. John Smith

American Consul

Rue de Quelque Chose

Paris, France

Social: Mr. and Mrs. John Smith

Home Address

Salutation: Formal: Sir: or Dear Sir:

Informal: Dear Mr. Smith:

Closing: Formal: Very truly yours,

Informal: Sincerely yours,

In Conversation: Mr. Smith

Title of Introduction: Mr. Smith

Ambassador of a Foreign Country

Address: Business: His Excellency, Juan Luis Ortega

The Ambassador of Mexico

Washington, D.C.

Social: His Excellency

The Ambassador of Mexico and Señora Ortega

Home Address

Salutation: Formal: Excellency:

Informal: Dear Mr. Ambassador:

Closing: Formal: Very truly yours,

Informal: Sincerely yours,

In Conversation: Mr. Ambassador or Sir

Title of Introduction: The Ambassador of Mexico

Minister of a Foreign Country

Address: Business: The Honorable

Carluh Matti

The Minister of Kezeah

Washington, D.C.

Social: The Honorable and Mrs. Carluh Matti

Home Address

Salutation: Formal: Sir:

Informal: Dear Mr. Minister:

Closing: Formal: Very truly yours,

Informal: Sincerely yours,

In Conversation: Mr. Minister or Sir

Title of Introduction: The Minister of Kezeah

Governor of a State

Address: Business: The Honorable Joseph L. Marvin

Governor of Idaho

Boise, Idaho

Social: The Honorable and Mrs. Joseph L. Marvin

Home Address

or (for a woman governor)

The Honorable Katherine Marvin

or (if she is married)

Mr. and Mrs. Walter O'Reilly

Salutation: Fonnal: Sir:

Informal: Dear Governor Marvin:

Closing: Formal: Very truly yours,

Informal: Sincerely yours,

In Conversation: Governor Marvin or Sir or Madam

Title of Introduction: The Governor or The Governor of Idaho

State Senators and Representatives are addressed in the same manner as U.S. Senators and Representatives.

Mayor

Address: Business: Honorable Roger Shute

Mayor of Easton

City Hall

Easton, Maryland

Social: The Honorable and Mrs. Roger Shute

Home Address

or (for a woman mayor)

The Honorable Martha Wayne

or (if she is married)

Mr. and Mrs. Walter Snow

Salutation: Formal: Sir: or Madam:

Informal: Dear Mayor Shute:

Closing: Formal: Very truly yours,

Informal: Sincerely yours,

In Conversation: Mr. Mayor or Madam Mayor

Title of Introduction: Mayor Shute

Judge

Address: Business: The Honorable Carson Little Justice, Appellate Division Supreme Court of the State of New York

Albany, New York

Social: The Honorable and Mrs. Carson Little

Home Address

or (for a woman judge)

The Honorable Josefina Gonzalez

or (if she is married)

Mr. and Mrs. Rafael Montoya

Salutation: Formal: Sir:

Informal: Dear Judge Little:

Closing: Formal: Very truly yours,

Informal: Sincerely yours,

In Conversation: Mr. Justice or Madam Justice

Title of Introduction: Justice Little

Protestant Bishop

Address: Business: The Right Reverend John S. Bowman

Bishop of Rhode Island

Providence, Rhode Island

Social: The Right Reverend and Mrs. John S. Bowman

Salutation: Formal: Right Reverend Sir:

Informal: Dear Bishop Bowman:

Closing: Formal: Respectfully yours,

Informal: Sincerely yours,

In Conversation: Bishop Bowman

Title of Introduction: Bishop Bowman

Protestant Clergyman

Address: Business: The Reverend David Dekker

or (if he holds the degree)

The Reverend David Dekker, D.D.

Address of his church

Social: The Reverend and Mrs. David Dekker

Home Address

Salutation: Formal: Dear Sir:

Informal: Dear Mr. (or Dr.) Dekker:

Closing: Formal: Sincerely yours,

Informal: Sincerely yours,

In Conversation: Mr. (or Dr.) Dekker

Title of Introduction: Mr. (or Dr.) Dekker

Rabbi

Address: Business: Rabbi Paul Aaron Fine

or (if he holds the degree)

Dr. Paul Aaron Fine, D.D.

Address of his synagogue

Social: Rabbi (or Dr.) and Mrs. Paul Aaron Fine

Home Address

Salutation: Formal: Dear Sir:

Informal: Dear Rabbi (or Dr.) Fine:

Closing: Formal: Sincerely yours,

Informal: Sincerely yours,

In Conversation: Rabbi (or Dr.) Fine

Title of Introduction: Rabbi (or Dr.) Fine

The Pope

Address: His Holiness Pope Paul VI

or His Holiness the Pope

Vatican City

Salutation: Your Holiness:

Closing: Your Holiness' most humble servant,

In Conversation: Your Holiness

Title of Introduction: One is presented to: His Holiness or The Holy Father

Cardinal

Address: His Eminence Alberto Cardinal Vezzetti

Archbishop of Baltimore

Baltimore, Maryland

Salutation: Formal: Your Eminence:

Informal: Dear Cardinal Vezzetti:

Closing: Your Eminence's humble servant,

In Conversation: Your Eminence

Title of Introduction: One is presented to: His Eminence, Cardinal Vezzetti

Roman Catholic Archbishop

Address: The Most Reverend Preston Lowen

Archbishop of Philadelphia

Philadelphia, Pennsylvania

Salutation: Formal: Your Excellency: or Most Reverend Sir:

Informal: Dear Archbishop Lowen:

Closing: Your Excellency's humble servant,

In Conversation: Your Excellency

Title of Introduction: One is presented to: The Most Reverend

The Archbishop of Philadelphia

Roman Catholic Bishop

Address: The Most Reverend Matthew S. Borden

Address of his church

Salutation: Formal: Your Excellency: or Most Reverend Sir:

Informal: Dear Bishop Borden:

Closing: Formal: Your obedient servant,

Informal: Sincerely yours,

In Conversation: Your Excellency

Title of Introduction: Bishop Borden

Monsignor

Address: The Right Reverend Monsignor Ryan

Address of his church

Salutation: Formal: Right Reverend Monsignor:

Informal: Dear Monsignor Ryan:

Closing: Formal: I remain, Right Reverend

Monsignor, yours faithfully,

Informal: Faithfully yours,

In Conversation: Monsignor Ryan

Title of Introduction: Monsignor Ryan

Priest

Address: The Reverend John Matthews (and the initials of his order)

Address of his church

Salutation: Formal: Reverend Father:

Informal: Dear Father Matthews:

Closing: Formal: I remain, Reverend Father, yours faithfully,

Informal: Faithfully yours,

In Conversation: Father or Father Matthews

Title of Introduction: The Reverend Father Matthews

Member of Religious Order

Address: Sister Angelica (and initials of order) or Brother James (and initials) Address

Salutation: Formal: Dear Sister: or Dear Brother:

Informal: Dear Sister Angelica: or Dear Brother James

Closing: Formal: Respectfully yours,

Informal: Faithfully yours,

In Conversation: Sister Angelica or Brother James

Title of Introduction: Sister Angelica or Brother James

University Professor

Address: Business: Professor Robert Knowles

Office Address

Social: Professor or Mr.

or (if he holds the degree)

Dr. and Mrs. Robert Knowles

Home Address

or (for a woman professor)

Professor or Miss (or Dr.) Catherine Stone

or (if she is married)

Mr. and Mrs. Wallace Bryant

Salutation: Formal: Dear Professor (or Dr.) Knowles:

Informal: Dear Mr. (or Miss or Mrs. or Ms.) Knowles:

Closing: Formal: Very truly yours,

Informal: Sincerely yours,

In Conversation: Professor (or Dr. or Mr. or Miss or Mrs.) Knowles

Title of Introduction: Professor (or Dr.) Knowles

Physician

Address: Business: William L. Barnes, M.D. or Dr. William L. Barnes

Office Address

Social: Dr. and Mrs. William L. Barnes

Home Address

Salutation: Dear Dr. Barnes:

Closing: Formal: Very truly yours,

Informal: Sincerely yours,

In Conversation: Dr. Barnes

Title of Introduction: Dr. Barnes

Canada

Prime Minister

Address: Business: The Right Hon. John Smith, P.C., M.P.

Prime Minister of Canada

Parliament Building

Ottawa, Ontario

Social: The Hon. and Mrs. John Smith

Home Address

Salutation: Formal: Sir: or Dear Sir:

Informal: Dear Mr. Prime Minister: or Dear Mr. Smith:

Closing: Formal: Yours very truly,

Informal: Yours very sincerely,

In Conversation: Mr. Prime Minister or Mr. Smith or Sir

Governor General—The Commonwealth

Address: Business: His Excellency

John Smith (or his personal title)

Government House

Ottawa, Ontario

Social: Their Excellencies The Governor General and Mrs. John Smith

Home Address

Salutation: Formal: Sir: or Dear Sir:

Informal: Dear Mr. Smith:

Closing: Formal: Your Excellency's obedient servant,

Informal: Yours very sincerely,

In Conversation: Your Excellency

Former Prime Minister

Address: The Honourable (or Right Honourable) John Smith

Home Address (or Office Address)

Cabinet Officer

Address: Business: The Hon. John Smith, P.C., M.P.

Minister of Forestry

Ottawa, Ontario

Social: The Hon. and Mrs. John Smith

Home Address

or (for a woman cabinet member)

The Hon. Mary Jones

(or, if she is married)

Mr. and Mrs. John Smith

Salutation: Formal: Sir: or Dear Sir: or Madam: or Dear Madam:

Informal: Dear Mr. Smith; or Dear Mrs. Smith:

Closing: Formal: Yours very truly,

Informal: Yours very sincerely,

In Conversation: Sir or Madam (formally); Mr. or Mrs. Smith or Mr. Minister (informally)

Judges

Judges of the following federal and provincial courts have the title The Honourable.

Supreme Court of Canada, Exchequer Court of Canada, Courts of appeal of the provinces of British Columbia, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan, Court of Chancery of the province of Prince Edward Island, Courts of Queen's Bench of the Provinces of Manitoba, Quebec, and Saskatchewan, Superior Court of the province of Quebec, Supreme courts of the provinces of Alberta, British Columbia, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, and Newfoundland; and the territorial courts.

Address: Business: The Hon. Mr. Justice John Smith

Social: The Hon. Mr. Justice John Smith and Mrs. Smith

Salutation: Formal: Sir:

Informal: Dear Mr. Justice Smith:

Closing: Formal: Yours very truly,

Informal: Yours very sincerely,

In Conversation: Sir (formally); Mr. Justice (informally)

Mayor

Address: His Worship

The Mayor of St. Lazare

Salutation: Formal: Dear Sir:

Informal: Dear Mr. Mayor:

Closing: Formal: Yours very truly,

Informal: Yours very sincerely,

In Conversation: Sir (formally): Mr. Mayor (informally)

Member of Parliament

Address: John Smith, Esq., M.P.

House of Commons

Ottawa, Ontario

Salutation: Formal: Dear Sir: or Dear Madam:

Informal: Dear Mr. (or Miss or Mrs.) Smith

Closing: Formal: Yours very truly,

Informal: Yours very sincerely,

In Conversation: Sir or Madam (formally): Mr. (or Miss or Mrs.) Smith (informally)

Phrases starting with the letter: A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z